5/31/2012

Sample Situation Analysis

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1. SITUATION ANALYSIS

Burnell Connor May Architects

Strengths

BCM currently have plenty of opportunity for expansion, as they have not yet delved into use of different forms of advertising to get their name and product out to the public. They are also willing to keep an open mind on how their new corporate image may look and with a generous budget available more room to work on a new advertising campaign is viable.

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Weaknesses

In such a competitive industry, BCM have failed to use media types to promote their name in the architectural trade, which is giving competitors an advantage over them. They have also not had a strong brand image up until now which has not given clients and potential clients the opportunity to see BCM as a professional firm. This also gives competitors a stronger image in the market place.

Opportunities

By branding themselves as a company that offers growth for small clients, BCM have the opportunity to take a large proportion of the architectural market just by this branding image alone. They also have the advantage of working on the assumption that other firms are not targeting regions such as the Gold and Sunshine Coast and therefore this will highlight the “we care about all” approach that BCM will be taking.

Threats

BCM’s “helping smaller projects grow” approach may single out potentially larger projects that can earn revenue for BCM should someone with a large project choose them for the job. There is also the possibility that another firm may latch on to the same brand idea in the same sales regions or an already highly regarded firm may decide to tackle the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast regions which can affect BCM’s brand identity.



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Is there a one best style of management ?

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beyond senior positions in their own subsidiary. As in the case of regiocenttrris policy, this may cause resentment.

Perhaps the major drew back with the Polycentric staffing policy approach however is the gap that can form between the host country mangers and parent country managers. Language barriers, national loyalties, and range of cultural differences may isolate the corporate headquarters staff from the various foreign subsidiaries. The lack of management transfers from one home to host countries, and vise versa, can exacerbate this isolation and lead to lack of integration between the corporate headquarters and the foreign subsidiaries. The result can be a ¡§federation¡¨. Of largely independent national units with only nominal links to the corporate headquarters. With in such federation the coordination requires to transfer core competencies or to perceive experience curve and location economics may be difficulty to achieve. Thus although a polycentric approach may be effective for firms pursuing a multi domestic strategy, it is inappropriate for other strategies.

The geocentric approach

This policy seeks the best people for key jobs throughout the organisation, regardless the nationality. There are number of advantages to this policy. First it enables the firm to make the best of its human resources. Secondly it enables the firm to build a cadre of international exceutives who feels at home working in a number of cultures. This could build a strong unifying coorparate culture and informal management network. In addition, geocentric staffing policy tend to reduce cultural myopia. Thus other things beign equal this approach seems the most attractive. Among the disadavantages this policy has are it can be expensive to implement. There are increased training and relocation costs involved in transferring managers from a county to another. Another is the firm

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Expactriate employees are citizens of one country who are working in another country. Two of the three staffing policy which we discuss ¡V regionalcentric and geocentric ¡V rely on extensive use of expatriot management. One of the major issues regarding expactriot employment is that its failiur rate. One estimate is that between 16 ¡V 40 percent of employees sent abroad specially to developing nations return from their assignments early. One of the reasons for this failuire rate is the failiur of the firms selection policy to identify individuals who will not thrive abroad. The cost of expactriorate failiur rate are high. One estimate is that the average cost of failiur to the parent firm can be as high as three times the expactriates annual salary plus the cost of relocation. Other than the lack of selection policies the reasons for expactriate failiur are

„h Inability to spouce to adjust and other familiy problems.

„h Personal emotion problems.

„h Inability cope with larger oversees responcibilities.

„h Lack of cultural skills and knowledge.

„h Lack technical competence.



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Ethics Issue Paper

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Ethics Statement

While working for Allstate Insurance Company in the Accounting Department for over 18 years, I have gone through some Strategic and Social Challenges. The Code of Ethics Policy applies to every Allstate employee including the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Office, Controller, other senior financial and executive officers, and to Allstate’s outside directors, and references in this Code to ‘you,’ ‘we,’ and ‘employees’ are intended to include them.

While interviewing my department manager, Eric Mell he shared some very valuable information that was very interesting to me. Allstate’s Code of Ethics; “Allstate is committed to operating its business with honesty, integrity and the highest level of ethical conduct. These values are absolute. We must treat every customer, fellow employee, and member of the public accordingly. (Interview, May 00)”

Independent judgment is critical to the performance of your job. To maintain independence, you should avoid any other employment, business dealings or other relationships or activities that could impair independent thinking and judgment.

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I believe the purpose of the ethics statement is to demonstrate how Allstate is committed to provide a work environment that is safe and free from discrimination and harassment that may effect an employee’s terms or conditions of employment. Allstate has many valuable assets, including its people, property, information, and reputation. It is the company’s duty as well as the employee’s to preserve and protect these assets, and to use them only in ways, which promote the best interests of the Company.

In today’s rapidly changing environment, Allstate’s Code of Ethics has changed to keep up with today and tomorrow’s business requirements. Allstate is in the business that is built on trust. Any violations of the trust would affect their image and their ability to do business. Allstate’s ethical standard reflects each individual and corporate commitment of how our long-term success and our ability to succeed in the marketplace as a great company is determined by how each leader and employee conducts relationships. Allstate encourages employees to volunteer in the community demonstrating that Allstate and its employees are valued citizens of the community.

We as employees are expected to act honestly and deal fairly and ethically in all of the Company’s business relationships, whether with its customers, suppliers, competitors or other employees. Allstate’s reputation for honesty and integrity must never be subject to question. As one of Allstate’s core values, integrity must be part of all business goals and activities, such as developing new customer relationships, creating shareholder value, and enhancing employee relationships.

If no one observed the ethical guidelines this would be a violations of our Code of Ethics, which could result in discipline up to and including termination of employment or referral for criminal prosecution. Allstate will seek prosecutions of criminal acts perpetrated against the company by any officer, employee, or other person. Compliance with this Code and all applicable laws and regulations, both foreign and domestic, is required of all individuals covered by the Code. This is very important to our corporate image and strategies. The Company maintains a number of policies that are designed to assist employees in complying with applicable law in the conduct of Allstate’s business.

In addition, if the company has no Code of Ethics policy, this could result in lawsuit toward the company and eventually, cause the company’s downfall.

Each year Allstate e-mails each employee a copy of the Code of Ethics, called the Annual Compliance Confirmation. This includes Conflict of Interest, Integrity, Asset Protection and General Provisions. As employees, we must read and sign off under each category stating that we are in compliance with the company’s Code of Ethics. Failure to complete the Annual Compliance Confirmation may result in disciplinary action up to and including termination. One way I feel this could improve is to send one section at a time, this will give the employee the opportunity to take their time and read without feeling rushed into agreement.

REFERENCES

Interview with Eric Mell on May 11, 00

The Allstate Insurance Intranet Web Site http//hr/hr_policy_guide/CodeEthics.htm



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bartering

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Economics textbooks often point out that today’s complex economies have replaced bartering, a far older system of direct trade. In Microeconomics Lewis Solmon points out how inefficient the bartering system is. Solmon’s figure shows how much work a shoemaker has to do just to get some eggs.

In Solmon’s figure the shoemaker has to go through many unnecessary steps just to get eggs. The shoemaker desires eggs and goes to the farmer, who desires a coat. So the shoemaker now has to trade his shoes for a coat. The clothier wants a cake before the farmer can get a coat, this takes him to the baker who desires pills from the druggist. The druggist needs shoes so he trades pills for shoes. Now the farmer can go back and eventually get his eggs. As shown there is many problems with the bartering system. This system wastes a lot of time. It seems there would be a lot of traveling for the goods you need to trade. Also, it seems that someone could get ripped off with this system, as seen multiple times in the figure. Eggs are not worth as much as shoes, or a cake being worth a coat. All in all there is just too many steps for getting one item.

Money has replaced this system, and corrected the problems of bartering. With money, the shoemaker could have gone directly to the farmer for eggs and would not have spent so much time traveling about. With money no one could be able to get ripped off as bad, because people would know how much a dozen eggs would normally go for.

The replacement of the bartering system with money has made life easier on people in multiple ways. Solmon’s figure shows the undeniable problems of the bartering system. Without money there would be far too many steps just to get a single item.

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Accounting for intangible assets

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To help you imagine what your companys accounts might look like under International Financial Reporting Standards, we have published fictitious financial statements for various types of entities to illustrate the disclosure and presentation requirements.

In May 00 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published a revised Preface to International Financial Reporting Standards which defines IFRS to include standards and interpretations approved by the IASB as well as International Accounting Standards (IAS) and SIC Interpretations issued by the previous International Accounting Standards Committee.

In July 00, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) announced that the AASB will work towards the implementation of International Accounting Standards for the financial years beginning on or after 1 January 005.

There are presently IASs with the intention to leave three existing standards unrevised before 1 January 005. Refer to CPA Australias IFRS Snapshot for an understanding of which AASBs and IASs are subject to change under the adoption of IFRSs by 005.

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CPA Australia welcomes the decision to implement IASB standards fully.

Throughout this process, it is important that members are kept up-to-date on the progress of IFRS and are motivated to ensure the 005 deadline is met.

More importantly, it requires members to be proactive about their education of IFRS. It also requires members to be motivated within their own entities to start this process early and to implement a strategy to ensure business risks are mitigated.

According to a recent survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers of more than 650 CFOs across the European Union found that almost half of those who had moved to IAS found that it took longer than expected.



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kl,lkllk

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John Harding’s decided to start a new play about the lost children as this topic was emerging as one of the most important and painful issues in the Australian community. Common in the human history, cultures due to racial superiority try to overcome the others and be the leaders. In this context, the white community in Australia undertook a policy to remove the aboriginal culture by assimilating the aboriginal with the white. Thus, the aboriginal children (as they are young and easy to model) were taken from their parent and placed in a special house. There they would have contact with the white people so that they would forget about their culture and also change their skin color (in generations their black skin will be vanished).

Therefore this play was formed to alert, inform and create a dialogue about the tragedy and suffering of the Aboriginal community.

The play talks about the life of five Aboriginal children, two males and three females, who are removed from their families against their will. These innocent representatives of the stolen generation are raised in an authoritarian children’s home devoid of their own cultural traditions.

Initially the title for the play was ‘Lost Children” but then it was replaced by “Stolen” as the community decided the children who were taken were not “lost” they were “stolen”.

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Indubitably, and among others, lost and identity are two of the themes if this play. If wee look in the dictionary the definition of

Loss it says the state of no loner having something or as much of something. The process that leads to this,

Death of a person;

Disadvantage that is caused when someday leaves or when a useful or valuable object is taken away; a person who causes a disadvantage by leaving;

Identity is who or what somebody/ something is;

The characteristics, feelings or beliefs that distinguish people from others.

Clearly we can find this definitions in the play.

Next, my fellows are going to discuss the way loss and identity are portrayed in the characters Sandy, Anne and Rubby. Each of the characters represents a group of persons that actually lived these experiences. Not all stolen children experienced or suffered the assimilation policy in the same way. Therefore Sandy, Anne and Rubby represent a crescent order of inner destruction from a relative possible life to a madness and suicide.

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5/30/2012

career objectives

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I wish to work in the IT consulting industry for a reputable consulting firm as a technology consultant in the SCM domain and eventually become a partner

However, I have found it tough so far to accomplish that. That is why I am here to look for sample essays to help improve my chances of getting an admit to a prestigious business school such as yours.

Nevertheless, I am trying very hard to accomplish just that someway or the other, but it just impossible with so much of other work to do. So here I am typing away hoping to complete the 50-word limit at the earliest get through the registration process.

I still am only through half the essay with one more half to go and I am already running out of words to fill in here. I guess I am limited on creative faculty right now and this is slowly getting to be a you know what.

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Nevertheless, as they say, try , try try and stop not till your goal is achieved - so here I am steadfastedly following that saying to last letter.

I have some very good ambitions, but am unable to translate them to concrete words and that is the reason why I am here.

I had other ambitions during my younger years ranging from and engine driver to a car mechanic to an aircraft pilot. But, none of them worked for one reason or the other and here I am with one last and final ambition to become whatever I have mentioned in the first paragraph as they do not allow repetition here.

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5/17/2012

Manager

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What Do Managers Do?


17/10/0


Interviewed Mr.Jorge Alvarez


Manager, Expresso Bibliogrfico S.A.


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SUMMARY


For this project I interviewed Mr. Jorge Alvarez, manager of Expresso Bibliografico, a company that specializes in books distribution all around the country. As the interview developed I had the chance to notice which of the roles he thought were the most and least important. He came to the conclusions that among the most important roles are leader, liaison, and entrepreneur. On the other hand, among the most time consuming roles are figurehead and negotiator. They are time consuming because negotiating with more than 14 schools, to get profits for shareholders is a very hard task.


He claims that you need skills and talents to get profitable outcomes.





Role Activities and Examples


Importance on job Time Consuming Example


Interpersonal Roles


Figurehead 4 4


Leader 5 4 Selects people to each department and gives objectives and possible sales forecast for the next month. He’s plan is to make them achieve the desirable sales.


Liaison 5


Information Roles


Monitor 4


Disseminator 4 The one in charge of distribution of books.


Spokesman


Decisional Roles


Entrepreneur 5 4 In charge of making sure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the organization is high.


Disturbance handler In charge of solving conflicts among the departments and the employees. Makes sure the customers are satisfied and handles clients claims.


Resource Allocator 5 4


Negotiator 5 5 The one in charge of visiting the schools and negotiating the cost and price on books. It is crucial to the organization that the negotiator is good. Otherwise sales will be poor.


CONCLUSION


In conclusion we can see that among the Interpersonal roles, the ones of highly importance to the company are Leader and Liaison. The leader is in charge of estimating market potential and forecasting sales, in other words the future of the company.


In this company leaders are also marketing managers specialized on sale trends. they are a very important role for the future of the company. Inside the company communication among managers(Leaders) and employees is crucial because the departments are connected. New or improved ideas or systems can come from any department.


The Liaison role is also of highly importance. Many contacts among the different schools should be good and representative. This is a social role, in order to establish good relationships with schools. If the company has good relationships with school the business can sell more year by year.


Among the informational goals, the Disseminator was the most important for job effectiveness. Since marketing managers and their personal staff have to be communicating among each other to exchange sales and locations it is a good idea to have a Disseminator. This role serves as a communication mean, inside the company, to carry out the work efficiently and effectively. However the roles of a spokesman is not that crucial to the company because it is an interactive company all exchanging ideas and cooperating. He deals with a closed organization, so transmitting information to people outside the business might not be very important.


Next on the list are the Decisional Roles, the Entrepreneur is highly important. A Company must always be prepared for changes and improvement, especially in this kind of business. Books are updated almost every year so as strategies, this business is always changing because the world is always undergoing change so are books. New sales strategies as well as constant relationship with the clients is demanded in this company otherwise clients will eventually change toward better services.


The Resource Allocator is a key factor in this business there are many categories of books and different marketing managers should be able to handle several categories. Allocating resources to the different marketing managers according to their skills and talents will improve effectiveness and development in the organization. An example can be distributing French books to the marketing manager department that knows the field and has perform exploratory research on that area.


According to Mr. Alvarez it is hard to handle a good communication with all the clients because sometimes books distributions are not complete or books can come out with a print error that it is not the company’s fault. Since Expresso orders the books from different book publishers and then distributes them. A Disturbance handler then needs to spend time arranging the clients complaints.


This interview shows me how each role is importance according to the organizations priorities. Not all organizations will have the same roles in order of importance as Expresso, it depends on the company and its strategies. The key to a successful organization is to learn to combine the different roles and adapting them toward your own needs. A good communication and a systematic order will help to improve the connection among the different roles.








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tsandard precautions

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on tsandard precautions. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality tsandard precautions paper right on time.

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NURSING 1


( STANDARD PRECAUTIONS)


Today I would like to discuss a subject, which is very relevant to Nursing; we have been introduced to this subject very briefly in our practical sessions.


The journal, which we will present, is on Standard Precautions.


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The article is a Nursing Standard article which is owned by nurses for nurses. The article was published in May 17.


I will now give you some brief history on the subject.


Universal blood and body fluid precautions (Universal Precautions) were originally devised by the U.S. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in 185. In response to an urgent need to protect hospital personnel from blood borne infections. Emphasis is based on the assumption that all persons are presumed infectious.


In Australia the term Universal Precautions was deemed ambiguous and leading to a false notion that wearing gloves was a substitute for hand washing and that this perception was leading to an increase in the risk of hospital acquired infection.


An Infection Control working party recommended the term “Standard Precautions” as the basic risk minimisation strategy and “Additional Precautions” where Standard Precautions may be insufficient.


OVERHEAD No 1 (Definitions)


“Standard Precautions” describes the minimum requirements in work practices to promote infection control.


They include good hygiene particularly washing and drying of hands before and after patient contact, and the use of protective barriers, which may include gloves, gowns or aprons, masks, eye shields or goggles.


Appropriate handling of sharps and other contaminated or infectious waste.


“Additional Precautions” have also been adopted when standard precautions may be insufficient to prevent transmission of infection.


Health care workers who come into contact with patient’s blood and body fluids may be exposed to an occupational risk from blood borne and viral infections such as HIV and Hepatitis B & C.


The most likely form of transmission of these viruses to nurses is by direct contact of infected blood by a sharps injury or by blood splashing onto broken skin or mucous membranes such as the lining of the mouth.


As a matter of good practice nursing staff should use appropriate barrier methods, which will prevent the contamination by blood and body fluids.


OVERHEAD No (Standard Precautions Apply To)


1 Blood


All body secretions and excretions, except sweat regardless of whether they contain blood.


Non Intact skin.


4 Mucous membranes such as the lining of the mouth.


OVERHEAD No (Standard Precautions promote the use of


Personal protective equipment)


(GLOVES) Gloves prevent the transmission of pathogens by direct and indirect contact.


Nurses apply gloves when there is a risk of handling infected material.


In most cases single use gloves can be worn.


After coming into contact with any infected material, the nurse should change gloves if the client care is not completed.


Gloves must be removed and hands washed between patient care.


(APRONS/ GOWNS) The primary reason for gowning is to prevent soiling of clothing during contact with the patient.


Gowns protect nurses from coming into contact with infected material.


Gowns or aprons prevent cross contamination in instances such as changing a dressing for a wound, which has purulent discharge.


The gown or apron should be long enough to cover all outer garments.


(MASKS/ FACE PROTECTION) Masks or masks with face shields should be worn when splashing or spraying of blood or body fluid into the face is anticipated.


A properly applied mask fits snugly over the mouth and nose so that pathogens and body fluids cannot enter or escape through the sides.





(CONCLUSION)


In concluding!


Everyday every shift nursing staff practice Standard Precautions,


most of the time without even thinking about it, the article is very relevant to the work, which we will soon be performing.


The strengths of the article were that it was clear and precise, it didn’t get lost in terminology and jargon.


The only weakness is that the article is titled Universal Precautions which is now outdated.


The article was informative without being to technical.





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5/16/2012

Tony Blair

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I used to support the Labour Party as I had always thought that they were doing a good job however recently I have changed my mind as I have begun to realise that Labour is actually failing which I think is because of Tony Blair. Tony Blair is not only ruining labour but also our country.


In the elections in 17 Tony Blair and the Labour Party promised to build a modern, fairer Britain.


But I ask you what is fair?


The fact that students will have to pay three times more they pay for university from 006? Even though many people struggle to pay now as the fees are already too high.


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Teachers, firemen, and nurses receiving poor wages when people like lawyers, accountants and politicians receive quite a substantial amount? Yes their jobs may take a lot of hard work and skill but do they save lives or educate people, which is essential to live in this world? No they do not so to me teachers, firemen and nurses have the most important jobs and they should receive what they deserve.


Accepting too much asylum seekers and refugees when there are many British people living on the streets? These people are on the streets because there were no places for them to live or no jobs yet we can accept asylum seekers and refugees and give them places to live, jobs and also give them money and free education.


That we will have to go to an unnecessary war with Iraq even though most of the country does not agree with it? Why does Tony Blair want to go to war? Is it because he genuinely cares for the people and children of Iraq? If he did, he would not go to war which will hurt them but resolve the situation peacefully. Or is it that he is going to war because of President George Bush? Which does actually seem the case, so he is willing to put our lives and the lives of the innocent people of Iraq in danger just to please George Bush. Yes, Saddam Hussein is a cruel, horrid man and he does need to get rid of however he is not the only one, I mean there are more rulers like him, what about the President of Zimbabwe or even Tony Blair and George Bush themselves. As Tony Blair had said To remove Saddam would be to rid the world of one of the most revolting regimes in modern political history but to go along with this war he would be apart of another even more revolting regime.


What will Tony Blair or George Bush gain from this? They do not have support from the UN yet they still will go to war with Iraq, so just like Saddam they will be breaking rules, which would be very hypocritical.


It seems as though that Tony Blair has a very different definition of ‘fair’ to us.


A pledge card was launched on the th May 001 with five pledges for the next five years


The Economic pledge


1. Mortgages as low as possible, low inflation and sound public finances


(But house prices are rising)


The Schools pledge


. 10,000 extra teachers and higher standards in secondary schools


(Yet there are many schools without teachers as more and more teachers are leaving and without them how can schools reach a higher standard?)


The Health pledge


. 0,000 extra nurses and 10,000 extra doctors in a reformed NHS


(There are not enough nurses or doctors which is why people have to wait quite a long time in surgeries and hospitals to see a doctor)


The Crime pledge


4. 6,000 extra recruits to raise police numbers to their highest ever level


(There is a high crime rate, which is getting higher because the police can not do much about it)


The Families pledge


5. Pensioners’ winter fuel payment retained, minimum wage rising to £4.0


It has been nearly two years since then and not even one pledge has been successfully achieved so how are they supposed accomplish all this in five years?


If Tony Blair was not busy with George Bush planning a war and deal with America’s affairs then something could have be done to make our country better. Tony Blair plans to spend at lease $1 billion on the war, the money from which out parents pay taxes. Our parents do not pay taxes for the war that kills innocent people but for Britain, to make it a better place.


Tony Blair needs to sort out his priorities Britain or America? Who elected him and put him in power? It was the people of Britain who trusted him and though he would be a good leader but they were wrong. Tony Blair needs to rethink and listen to his people, the people of Britain.





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What is an American

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What is an American? There is no simple answer to this question, it is forever evolving. The idea of an “American” is much like a tree. Deep within root there lie the foundations or ideas that will with time form into the entire tree. From these roots or ideas a concrete trunk forms slowly, a solid poise that is the shared belief system. The trunk creates a support and balance that is necessary for the tree as it further develops. Deep inside there are rings, one inside the other that represents each of these shared beliefs. They are deep inside the trunk of the tree. From the trunk or from these beliefs new ideas begin to branch out until there are hundreds of budding limbs. To put this complex idea simply, it is a metamorphic concept that is continually branching out from the roots of its set beliefs. In my opinion John Winthrop best represents the complex rings that formed the trunk of early colonial thinking, while Thomas Paine became one of the first American writers who began to slowly branch out. John Winthrop’s works were among the first to reflect early Americans shared belief systems, including evidence of the doctrines of mission. Years later, Thomas Paine’s work still detained traces of these shared beliefs, however with the years they had evolved into new a form .


John Winthrop’s works which come from “A Modell of Christian Charity” strongly reflects the system of shared beliefs that existed during this time. The Puritan people strongly believed in the idea of predestination. They believed God had already chosen who would be saved; these people were known as the “elect.” To the Puritans no earthly deed would grant you salvation; only if you were among the elect would you be saved. This notion consequently led to a constant self-questioning by the Puritans. They were always looking for signs of whether or not they were one of the elect. They became obsessive with this whole notion known as the “Covenant of Grace”. Winthrop’s piece, which served as a sermon in it’s time, affirms this common belief and attempts to map out the ideas existing in this covenant by using a rhetorical method. For example, in his opening, he states “God Almightie in his most holy and wise providence hath soe disposed of the Condicion of mankinde, as in all times some must be rich some poore, some highe and eminent in power and dignitie; others meane and in subjeccion.” (Winthrop 6) With this statement he affirms the idea that God has pre-chosen who will be saved. He also begins to touch on the idea of separate economic classes, and how they exist for the benefit of those who God has predestined to be saved. He further goes on to explain “The Reason Hereof” as to why this separation exists. The puritans commonly believed that some people were predestined to be poor as others were to be rich. This was all for a purpose, and having this separation of classes was good for the entire community. Winthrop supports this belief as he states “To hold conformity with the rest of his workers, being delighted to shewe forthe the glory of his widsome in the variety and differances of the Creatures and the glory of his power, in ordering all these differences for the preservacion and good of the whole” (6). They further believed that the “good” of this separation of classes was that those who were saved, or the rich, would be able to perform good deeds for the benefit of their salvation.


While Winthrop’s sermon strongly reflects the common belief in the “Covenant of Grace” among the Puritan people, it provides just as strong a reflection for the “Doctrine of Mission”. This mission was one of the most prominent beliefs that existed during this era. They believed that Israelites messed up by killing Christ. In the shadow of this mistake, the Puritans wanted to create a New Jerusalem; they wanted to be the “city upon the hill.” In other words, they believed that Christ would come again, but only if they were successful in creating this so called city on the hill, and this was only possible by following the covenant of Grace. Winthrop’s sermon serves as a sort of outline on how to successfully achieve this mission. His sermon reads, “for wee must Consider that wee shall be as the Citty upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to with drewe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story…” In other words, Winthrop is echoing the strong belief that they must become the greatest city in the world, that all eyes will be on them, and Christ will come again, but only when they have fulfilled the covenant of grace, which he outlines diligently in this piece. Because his piece so strongly echoes the doctrines of both missions and grace, two very predominant belief systems in their time, Winthrop is a sturdy reflection of the shared beliefs systems that began to shape America.


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Over more than a hundred years later, a man named Thomas Paine published a piece called “Common Sense.” In this piece Paine makes a bold argument for American independence from Great Britian. He begins to reshape this idea of the “City on the hill” by arguing that America can achieve greater success by forming a republican government, far different from Great Britain’s monarchy. It is here that we begin to see a shift in how the city upon the hill should be achieved. The puritans believed that through God and his covenant of Grace America would become the greatest and most powerful city. Here you see this idea begin to branch out, and many writers to come will follow this trend and argue for this city on the hill by economic means. However, the doctrine of mission is still evident. At one point in this piece Paine states, “’Tis repugnant to reason, to the universal order of thins, to all examples from former ages, to suppose that this continent can long remain subject to any external power. The sanguine in Britain doth not think so. The utmost stretch of human wisdom cannot, at this time, compass a plan, short of separation, which can promise the continent even a year’s security” (Paine 88). In other words he is saying, it makes no sense that America is being controlled by an outside source, and that if they do not separate, they will lose any chance of becoming powerful. He states that they must separate immediately so that they will be guaranteed some sense of “security”, security that is for becoming a superpower. He also goes onto state some ideas of what America should be. “A government of our own is our natural right; and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power.” (88) This quote shows the beginning of the reshaping of the shared beliefs system, and how they shifted to a more economic interest in terms of someday achieving that total power. Paine’s article is said to have been one of the most influential components to the American Revolution. Americans read his works and began to understand that a separation from Great Britian was crucial if they wanted to achieve a greater power all their own. This way of thinking spread quickly in American, and eventually led to the war, and later to the separation. Some of his ideas were then further shaped, as America did in fact establish a government of their own.


John Winthrop and Thomas Paine both demonstrate evidence of shared belief systems that have in essence been preserved throughout the years. Though new attitudes ways of thinking, and values alter these shared beliefs they stem from the same root. The roots of an American date back to ideas and dreams that some of the first settlers brought with them to the “new world.” These ideas later developed into a solid belief system that created the foundation for all future beliefs. John Winthrop and his piece from “A Modell of Christian Charity” strongly mirror the common belief systems shared during the early colonial period. While Thomas Paine’s ideas began to stem out from these very same concepts, they took on a new form. Though his ideas are a reconstruction, still evident is this idea of America one day becoming the city on the hill. Today we are branching out even more, but still at the root and deep within the rings of our constant evolving tree lay this whole notion that we must be the world superpower. And for this I quote President Bush following the September 11th attacks, whose speeches echo the likes of John Winthrop, further evidence that our shared beliefs have survived generations… “Our nation -- this generation -- will lift a dark threat of violence from our people and our future. We will rally the world to this cause by our efforts, by our courage. We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.”








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5/15/2012

Comparative EssayThe Great Gatsby / Muriel’s Wedding

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Comparative Essay


The Great Gatsby / Muriel’s Wedding


“They’re a rotten crowd. You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together…”


This phrase of complement that Nick Carroway expressed to Jay Gatsby towards the end of the novel, deemed to encapsulate the sentiment that is expressed in both written and visual texts of The Great Gatsby and Muriel’s Wedding respectively. We observe and can be drawn to even fathom a sense of admiration for both Jay and Muriel, as no matter what problems they are faced with, they seem to hold a sense of dignity about them, which it seems can never be extricated from these fictitious characters.


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Possibly the most versatile and differentiating aspects to a film, would be the themes associated with each individual movie, texts etc.


It is rarely that we come across a motion picture or anecdote with such specific similarities as The Great Gatsby and Muriel’s Wedding. These two texts as well as visual texts seemed to show holographic alikeness in relation to specific themes and characters. In detail one of the most prominent aspects of the two narrative accounts that can be analysed are the themes associated with apiece.


We observe clearly that both Jay Gatsby and Muriel’s Haslop are trying to attest to the social order and more importantly themselves that they can fit in and be equal as society sees fit. Both Jay Gatsby and Muriel Haslop seemed to think of themselves quite moral and unobtrusive people, although when we see the manifestation of their actions we can observe that they are really just basing their morals on personal preferences and more or less whimsical ideals.


In contrast to the similarities of these two visual texts we can see that at the end of Muriel’s Wedding, Muriel seems to rectify her problems in regards to trying to fit in to society’s fickle opinions and the prospect that she is in effect absolved from any blame that could be placed upon her is readily recognised and excepted. However in the closing scenes of The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby is murdered and it seems that all his pain, sorrow and wonton love of Daisy Buchannon is taken with him. This seems to symbolise that the American dream dies, trapped in a quagmire of dreams and superficial fantasies.


An additional facet to the underlying symbolic themes that these two stories contribute to, can be seen when we analyse the significance to Jay Gatsby’s death as well as Muriel’s mothers, and how these tragedies came to fruition. Jay as well as Muriel’s mother seemed to both suffer the same fate, on account of trying to be seen as a somewhat equal to the qualities of which society held them to, in which they irrationally thought they did not possess.


It would seem that all the characters in both The Great Gatsby and Muriel’s Wedding were looking for a deeper emotional fulfilment than anyone could confer in them, which left them with little faith in themselves. It was as though they had their own personal opinions of the ideals of relationships in marriages, which were programmed to their immediate satisfaction rather than long termed. The characters seem to hide behind their marriages as imaginary shields to the world’s obtrusive view on them.


Primarily the characters are unaware of the damages that they are causing to their close friends and relatives as they commit such selfish acts. And it is until it is to late that they seemed to understand the gravity and how the problem impinged on others emotions and well being. As Muriel is portrayed as an innocent and unknowing young adult, we are also given the aspect that she is very self-centred with decisions vested in her. Alike with Jay Gatsby, he was perhaps the most pristine gentleman of the entire situate of people that surrounded him, but his unforgiving passion and desires for daisy finally overcome his well-mannered personality.


The resemblance in the two visual texts is quite easy to grasps in terms of themes and character analysis as we are faced with the same immoral values and attitudes throughout each. It is as though we can never overcome our instincts and struggles to control our inner desire.





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Dear America

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What have you learnt about “The Institution and Individual Experience” from your study of the text, Dear America?


An institution is defined as either an organisation for the advancement of a particular purpose, or as any established law or custom in a particular culture. The texts, Dear America, composed by Bill Coutrie, Michael Moore’s Bowling for Columbine, and Pink Floyd’s song, “The Wall”, expose many things about the individual’s experience with “the institution”, from the positive effects of some institutions, to the overwhelmingly negative effects of the majority of institutions and institutional practice.


Based on a book of the same name, Dear America was commissioned by the New York Veterans Memorial Commission. This fact informs the purpose and influences the perspective of the text Dear America decries the effect of institutional policy and power, with the individual portrayed very much as a victim of the institution. It is clearly a text that communicates its information, ideas, attitudes and belief systems in a way very specific to a particular area of society- it clearly adopts a sympathetic attitude towards American soldiers in Vietnam.


Dear America is a compilation of the letters of certain American soldiers who fought in Vietnam, together with images including photographs of soldiers who died after writing their letters home, footage, newsreel footage from war correspondents, newspaper headlines and excerpts from television coverage of politicians and protestors at home. The film documents the experiences of American soldiers at war, at the same time portraying the change in public opinion towards American involvement in the war, with anti-war sentiment growing as the war progressed.


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The film claims to be a documentary the opening sequence of the film features a split screen divided between a photograph of a young man in uniform and a slow-rolling textual accompaniment which reads “Every scene, every shot in the film is real. Nothing has been re-enacted”. Coutrie makes a claim for total truthfulness, reinforced by the honour-roll of actors who are thanked by the producers not for acting, but for “bringing these letters to life”. The audience is positioned to sympathise with the American soldiers by matching actor’s voices (reading real letters) with actual footage of American soldiers throughout the film. The addition of actors’ voices to the photographs or footage causes the letter-writers to become almost “characters” in the film.


The happiness and sense of purpose of the young American soldiers filmed playing on a beach in Vietnam in the following sequences of the film is reflected in the voice-over and music- “Under the Boardwalk”. The war seems to be a rightful war. This initial euphoria- the idealised, positive images of Vietnam which may have existed at the beginning of the war- is contrasted with the wartime reality of ever-imminent death which is exposed as the film progresses.


As the film unfolds, the human cost is measured in statistics to each year’s end, and the initial euphoria and excitement changes to disillusionment. The scene cuts directly to graphic images of “soldiers at work”, manning machine guns as helicopters strafe the jungle below. The soundtrack changes to Creedence Clearwater Revival’s “Fortunate Son” which decries the cost of patriotism Some folks are born to wave the flag/Ooh they’re red, white and blue/ And when the band plays “hail to the chief”/ Ooh they point the canon at you”. This lyric highlights the idea that the cost of patriotism in war is not paid by “senator’s sons” but by ordinary folk. The visuals focus on images of injured and dead soldiers being saved or retrieved by their comrades. The scene then cuts to a well-groomed news reporter, representative of institutional power, who clinically, and in well-modulated tones, details the extent of American casualties. Those who have died are statistics. The sympathies of the responders are directed towards the soldiers against the faceless institutional powers who determine their fates. The film continues in this way using carefully constructed montages, interspersing “real” soundtrack (bullets, helicopters, etc.) with the music of the era overlain by “acted” readings of letters and mixing in actual footage of GIs with newsreel footage and commentary, to manipulate the audience’s response. The responder becomes aware of the profoundly negative effect of institutional policies on the individual.


The film further presents itself as an accurate historical narrative with the use of subtitles which appear at the bottom of the screen at regular intervals. The viewer is informed of the historical progress of the war. The most consistent means of doing this is the regular “head count” which rises dramatically as the film unfolds. These subtitles are carefully juxtaposed with the letter-readings and footage which chart the emotional or personal progress of the war.





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5/14/2012

Organisational Analysis and Design

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Introduction


The concept of a frame of reference was adapted from work on cognitive frameworks . It has since been adapted by Bolman and Deal within the broad context of management theory to construct a conceptual framework for the analysis of organizations. Dunbar ,Garud and Raghuram expanded the concept of a multi-framed firm to emphasize the concept of deframing. Deframing advocates the constant re-evaluation of established frameworks to creatively meet managerial challenges.


A managers frame of reference is taken to mean a referential frame outlined in Bolman and Deals work. That a managers frame of reference is an enabling asset is taken to mean that by using only one of the four frames to interpret a given situation, a manager will be effective in pursuing an organizations overall goals.


Development of the argument shall begin by outlining some of the criticisms against a multi-framed approach that bring into doubt its utility. It will then be argued that whereas single-minded determination to utilize existing competencies may work well in protected markets, the propensity of governing authorities to reduce barriers, as well as lowered entry costs, has resulted in the opening up of markets to increased competition. A multi-framed approach is not only desirable in order to address the challenges of increased competition, it is in fact a necessary precondition to working within those markets.


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Criticisms of a multi-framed approach





Clearly, Bolman and Deal are against what they see as prevailing management practice of viewing most problems from one perspective within their framework.


Ideally, managers combine multiple frames into a comprehensive approach to leadership


Examples given by Bolman and Deal of the use reframing approach are often hypothetical and academic. Their examples are also often retrospective. A manager who works in the here and now is not able to conceive of their organization in the future . Cognitive limits exist in the extent to which multiple frames can be conceived and communicated. As well as the limitations inherent in the world ultimately being framed in the language of common business parlance . Aside from academic criticisms of reframing, the ability of management to enact change in an organization is limited by an individual managers lack of control over a situation or his or her lack of power


Given the limitations of a multi-framed approach there is a propensity towards arguing for managers to develop strong competencies in a particular area to align themselves with their organizations core strategic values. Examples in Bolman and Deals work are dominated by real world situations of managers characterized as working within specific frameworks, often achieving exceptional outcomes. Few empirical examples of managers actively working within multiple frameworks are provided other than imagined ones. In fact in outlining their reasons for advocating a multi-framed approach Bolman and Deal are merely prescriptive. Contrary to their intended aim, Bolman and Deal have shown by empirical example that commitment to durable values is more of a salient factor in determining outcomes than elastic strategies .


In arguing for a Multi-framed approach Dunbar have advanced the idea that competitive pressures necessitate change. For that change to be effective firms must expose themselves to risk by employing exploratory measures to enact novel means to adapt to an unstable business environment . A deframing approach can inform such measures.


However , there may be limitations to the types of organizations that need to embrace such an approach. Established firms have the benefit of being able to create contingencies by devoting resources to forward planning. Some firms have been able to carve a stable niche in an unchanging industry. Some organizations operate in protected markets or have reached a dominant foothold in an industry and occupy near monopoly status in multiple segments within a market.


Counter Criticisms


It is difficult to think of companies that have not had to react to threats from less significant entities or adapt to the imposition of increased regulation. Perhaps the most graphic example of both of these pressures is Microsofts recent concerns over its obligations to comply with U.S. legislation in the bundling of its operating system, leading to the possible forced breakup of the company As well as its decision to abandon its development of Java technology due to Suns antitrust suit Microsoft also faces substantial competition in the area of desktop operating system software. For over a decade the desktop operating system has been Microsofts mainstay in providing revenue to support its diversification into the business enterprise software and entertainment , and consumer electronics markets .


The German interior ministry has stated an explicit policy to move away from proprietary software in an effort to stem rising, recurrent capital outflows. This is starting to influence contracts at the regional government level. The South Australian government has recently stated an objective to allow Linux an equal standing in competitive tenders to its proprietary equivalents and has moved to enact this into legislation. In this instance competition has come from the open source movement . An essentially structureless, global, infinitely flat entity that cannibalizes its products as a matter of course. Inherently it is an organization driven by its consumers. The open source movement opitomises many of the extreme characteristics of the new structural form of organization. As a competitor it is a difficult target to engage. Its survival is almost certainly assured since as an organization it does not exist as a legal corporate entity.


New organizational forms have arisen in competitive markets as a reaction to extreme circumstances of competition. The main motivation for businesses to develop into such forms is to achieve a competitive advantage in order to meet the challenges of survival in the marketplace. Competition has been intensified by large companies achieving synergistic alliances with organizations in an attempt to create structural contingencies and gain market share. Criticism of the use of a reframing approach in the management of organizations do not take into account the benefits of an exploratory approach to address the challenges that exist in hyper- competitive environments .


A dominant factor in ensuring the survival of an organization is its ability to manage change in cases of extreme environmental flux. The rise of new organizational forms has come about as a result of increasingly open markets with more players of differing sizes and strengths, offering a wider array of services to an increasingly global marketplace. More recently issues of corporate governance have become an issue exposing firms to legislative restrictions. The rise of the super-fund also exposes the company to an increased democratization and a need for increased accountability to shareholders. .


A reframing approach is not only relevant in creating viable contingencies by planning for experimental forays into new markets to drive profits. A multi-framed approach is relevant to managers as markets and firms themselves begin to resemble highly pressurized political arenas. Such political factors are evident not only externally in the organizations environment , but also internally in the form of intra-departmental competition. A multi-framed approach becomes increasingly relevant to individuals working in organizations where


The image of firm control and crisp rationality often attributed to managers has little relevance to the messy world of complexity, conflict and uncertainty that they inhabit.


Palmer and Dunford in their survey of organizational forms cite the network as being one of the most popular forms rising out of a hyper-competitive context. Generally, new organizational forms are held together by relationship building in an environment that necessitates the frequent switching of contexts amongst affiliated entities of varying allegiances to the core organization. A managers ability to maintain a mental image of the four frames that make up the organization can also be helpful in promoting an organizational identity to its disparate constituent parts characterized by fuzzy boundaries, outsourced labor and high staff turnover. Bolman and Deal frequently describe the difficulties encountered in attempting to facilitate communication between individuals who view the organization through conflicting, singular frames of reference.


New organizational forms offer challenges to managers not only in the political sphere. In the structural frame challenges of maintaining flexible strategic links are paramount. In the human resource frame the challenge of maintaining a core operating framework and facilitating knowledge transfer exist. In the cultural frame, identifying and promoting a set of core values to encourage co-ordinated work efforts is important.


Conclusion


It has been argued that a multi-framed approach is not only a desirable alternative to a single framed approach, it is necessary. Such an approach is enabling in a sense that it allows a manager to manage change in their organization and adapt to increasingly inconstant, competitive business environments. However, managers need to balance a single frame dominated approach emphasizing core values with one that is experimental and creates new contingencies. At times they must occupy the paradoxical position of operating within multiple frameworks to encourage the promotion of a simplified single view to a broader audience. Bolman and Deal advocate a general approach toward viewing the world through multiple lenses. Yet there are few simple rules as to how to operate successfully within multiple frameworks. The alternative is to react to competitive pressures as they arise using existing competencies. The speed and extent to which markets have undergone substantial change and the ability of other market entities to flexibly adapt to change is increasingly making this option untenable.





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George W. Bush

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The book I read is a biography on George W. Bush, written by John F. Wukovits. George made many contributions to society in his life. He wanted to do something different in business to prove himself. He sold his oil company in order to purchase the Texas Rangers baseball club. He enjoyed great success as president of the club. In 14 he turned his eye toward politics again. He entered the Texas governor race against the incumbent, Ann Richards. George ran on a platform of improving education. His campaign was successful as he was elected by a margin of 5,000 votes. He started the Texas Reading Initiative, a program devised to develop reading proficiency in every student by third grade. In 1 George decided to serve the people of this great nation by running for the office of President of the United States.


George was born in New Haven, Connecticut on July 6, 146. He attended the Phillips Academy in Andover, Maine as a high school student. During his time at Phillips, George was elected senior class president and captain of the baseball team. In 164, he began his studies at Yale University. He joined the same fraternity that his father belonged to, Delta Kappa Epsilon, and was elected president. After graduation he was faced with the decision to enlist in the military. Many of his classmates were opposed to the Vietnam War. George showed great courage and conviction by enlisting in the Texas Air National Guard.


The Air National Guard was the right place for a person with great physical attributes like George. His athletic background helped him to become a fighter pilot. His common sense and ambition overcame his low pilot aptitude test scores. The Guard chose George to be featured in their recruiting campaign.


There were several setbacks in addition to his achievements in life. His sister Robin died of leukemia when George was seven years old. He helped his family with this loss by providing humor during this tragic time. As a result he developed a stronger bond with his mother, Barbara. Later in life George had an alcohol problem. One evening he wrecked his car outside of his fathers house. His father challenged him to overcome his problem.


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“Did I behave irresponsibly as a kid at times? Sure did,” said George. He began working with youth groups in the Washington D.C. area to put focus into his life. A meeting with the Reverend Billy Graham was the turning point in his life in achieving sobriety. His new focus in life eventually led him to run for the office of President in 1.


The biography also stated many other interesting facts about George W. Bush. George Bush is of the Methodist faith. George was married to Laura Welch on November 5, 177. Laura Bush gave birth to their twin daughters Jenna and Barbara on November 5, 181. George like his father, a member of the Republican Party, was turned down for law school. In 181 his father became Vice President of the United States. In 188, George’s father was elected President of the United States. George is the grandson of former United States Senator Prescott Bush. George’s younger brother Jeb is the Florida sate governor. George Bush was the only governor of Texas to serve two four year terms.


In conclusion, this book was written to emphasize the contributions, accomplishments, and deeds that brought fame to George W. Bush. It also showed how he influenced modern life. I learned that President Bush has strong values. He is an accomplished man and I would recommend this book to anyone wanting to know more about our forty-third President.











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5/13/2012

leaders are born not made

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. Leaders are born, not made


Over the years there has been many opinions on this statement, and when trying to understand leadership success many approaches have been looked at.


Researchers at the start of the 0th century focused on traits that leaders possessed. It was thought that some people were born with traits which made them a leader. Before the nd World War a lot of research was carried out, which sought to identify these characteristics. This is known as the Great Man Approach, since being born with these characteristics made you a “great man”.


So is it true that leaders are born? Before seeking to answer this question, the theories should be examined. Stodgill (148) and Bass (15) looked at people who had achieved “greatness” and tried to identify traits which they all possessed, and distinguished them from others. They identified 5 main characteristics which consisted with effective leadership-


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- intelligence


- dominance


- self confidence


- level of energy and activity


- task relevant knowledge


They deduced that some traits do seem to contribute to effective leadership. However, even they stated traits vary depending on organisational situation.


The main problem with the trait theory is that leaders can possess very different traits, and still be effective leaders. If we take for example effective leaders such as Margaret Thatcher and Richard Branson they lead in very different ways and possess very different traits. Thatcher was very outspoken and dominant, with “warrior” characteristics, where as Branson is much more manipulative and subdued. This isn’t to say they don’t possess any of the same characteristics, may be they are both very self confident people. The main point is that they possess very different characteristics, but are both extremely effective leaders. Hence there is only a weak link found between personal traits (i.e. traits you are born with) and leader success. I wouldn’t say all leaders are born, many are born with the particular traits making them successful, but some aren’t. Background and the environment plays a large role in shaping our characteristics. Looking at a leader such as Martin Luther King, who was subject to such prejudice and unfairness, he wouldn’t have been the person he was if it hadn’t been for the environment he was in and his upbringing. He may still have had the traits to be a great leader, but may never have had a chance to be one.


This isn’t to say that characteristics we are born with don’t contribute to effective leadership. Yet I feel leaders can be made. Who is to know whether leaders such as Martin Luther King learnt his leadership skills or he was born with them. I believe skills can be learnt “ Major competencies can be learnt. We are all educatable � if the basic instinct to learn is there.”


The behaviour style theory looked at leaders behaviour and started during the nd world war, helping to develop better military leaders. It was a result of the trait theory not explaining leadership effectiveness which brought about this approach. It suggested that anyone who adopted the appropriate behaviour can be a good leader in any situation. Hence leaders can be made. Kurt Lewin was one of the first to study leadership behaviour. He implied leaders were either autocratic or democratic. Tannenbaum and Schmidt took this idea further and suggested that leadership exists on a continuum, based on employee participation. Blake and Mouton produced a leadership grid, which showed leadership effectiveness based upon factors, concern for people and results. High concern for people and results was believed to be the best style for leading. All the behavioural style theories were based on the fact that anyone could learn the behaviour of a leader, and this resulted in their effectiveness. Yet our behaviour is just as significant as our traits, the behaviour a leader adopts doesn’t necessarily determine his success, what works in one instance may not work in another. However, in truth there is more than just traits and behaviour which determines success, the environment as well as the type of followers also plays a large role. Contingency Theories took this approach, that leadership effectiveness is contingent upon the leader (his traits, behaviour and styles) the followers (their needs, training and maturity) and the organisational situation ( the task, structure, systems and environment) Previously researchers took the universalistic approach, looking for universal traits and behaviours that would work in any situation. One contingency model is Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory which focused on the fact that leaders can adjust their task or relationship style to accommodate the readiness of subordinates. Basically contingency theories contend that determining the tasks, subordinates and organisational situation, leaders can determine a style of leadership which will be most successful. I believe this is definitely true, I don’t think it is necessarily an easy process, and not everyone possess traits which will allow them to learn to become an effective leader, but for most I think it is achievable


I believe that some personality traits that you are born with do contribute to making a good leader, hence some leaders may have been “born” leaders. Yet traits do not guarantee effective leadership, just greater likelihood. Some people are inborn with traits, but some are affected by our background and environment. It is often our background what “makes us” who we are. Some people are also born with the characteristics which make an effective leader, but unless they are in the right environment will never be one. After looking at all the models, the contingent seems most appropriate, all aspects, the leader, the situation and followers determine effective leadership. It is not just traits and behaviours, hence leaders aren’t always born leaders.





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