9/30/2011

Aspirin

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Aspirin


Aspirin was one of the first synthetic drugs, which was developed in 18. Although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. The German chemist Felix Hoffman first prepared acetylsalicylic acid in 187.


Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever, mild-to-moderate pain, and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. It acts at the site of tissue damage rather than in the pain centres of the brain, as do opiates such as codeine. It is more effective analgesic than codeine. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time, however, cause iron deficiency; gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin, which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. Aspirin should not be given to children because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye’s syndrome, a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. An alternative anti-inflammatory analgesic, lbuprofen, does not carry the risk.


Aspirin can be made by reacting Hydroxbenzoic acid and ethanoic anhydride. Aspirin has a melting point of 15 degrees, which is useful to know because you can find out how pure it is. No two chemicals have the exact same melting point so if it reacts at 15 degrees you know it is pure aspirin.


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Method of making in a lab


Method 1 � Apparatus


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid


· 10cm of Ethanoic Anhydride


· 1 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid


· 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water (100 cm of each)


· 100cm beaker


· 50cm beaker


· Gloves


· Goggles


· Glass rod


· Dropper


· Side arm flask


· Pump


· Buckner Funnel


· Filter paper


· Electronic scale


· Dry Dish


· Measuring Cylinder


· Oven


Method 1 � plan


1. First we put on the safety gear consisting of Gloves and Goggles


. We then gather and wash all apparatus and dry them for use


. Then place a clean 100cm beaker on to the electronic scale and press the T button on the scale to bring the total back to Zero. We then add in the -hydroxy benzoic acid in to the beaker until the count reaches 5 grams


4. Start storing the chemicals with a glass rod


5. While storing add 1 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid


6. Measure 150cm of distilled water using a measuring cylinder in to a 50cm beaker


7. Add the chemicals in to the beaker containing the distilled water


8. Place filter paper in to the top of the Buckner funnel


. Place the Buckner funnel into the top of the side arm flask and connect the pump to the side arm


10. Pour the contents of the 50 cm beaker in to the top of the Buckner funnel


11. Turn on the pump


1. After the vacuum filtration is complete remove the filter paper from the Buckner funnel and pour the contents in to a 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water (100cm of each) to recrystalise the solid


1. Vacuum filtrate the mixture again to remove any moisture


14. Place the solid on to a dry dish and place in to an oven at a temperature under 105°C


Method � Apparatus


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid


· 10 cm of Ethanoic Anhydride


· 1 drops of 85% phosphoric acid


· 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water


· Distilled water


· 100cm beaker


· 50cm beakers


· Goggles


· Gloves


· Dropper


· Buckner funnel


· Side Arm Flask


· Pump


· Glass rod


· Electronic scale


· Bunsen burner


· Tri-pod stand


· Filter paper


· Measuring cylinder


Method � Plan


1. First of all we put on the protective clothing this consists of goggles and gloves these are used to prevent the chemicals coming in contact with skin or eyes


. Gather and wash all apparatus and dry for use


. Add the following chemicals into a 100 cm quick fit pear shape flask


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid which we measure using a electronic scale


· 10 cm of Ethanoic Anhydride which we measure using a measuring cylinder


4. Start to swirl the mixture using a glass rod


5. While swirling the mixture add 1 drops of 85% phosphoric acid this is measured using a Dropper


6. Place 50 cm beaker half full of water on to a tri-pod stand and place a Bunsen burner under it and light it.


7. This is to be used as the steam bath


8. Place the mixture in the reflux apparatus


. Place the reflux apparatus over the 50cm beaker


10. Allow the mixture to reflux for 5 minutes over the steam bath


11. When the reaction has ended pour the mixture in to a 50cm beaker with 100cm





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