9/30/2011

Aspirin

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Aspirin


Aspirin was one of the first synthetic drugs, which was developed in 18. Although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. The German chemist Felix Hoffman first prepared acetylsalicylic acid in 187.


Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever, mild-to-moderate pain, and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. It acts at the site of tissue damage rather than in the pain centres of the brain, as do opiates such as codeine. It is more effective analgesic than codeine. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time, however, cause iron deficiency; gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin, which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. Aspirin should not be given to children because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye’s syndrome, a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. An alternative anti-inflammatory analgesic, lbuprofen, does not carry the risk.


Aspirin can be made by reacting Hydroxbenzoic acid and ethanoic anhydride. Aspirin has a melting point of 15 degrees, which is useful to know because you can find out how pure it is. No two chemicals have the exact same melting point so if it reacts at 15 degrees you know it is pure aspirin.


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Method of making in a lab


Method 1 � Apparatus


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid


· 10cm of Ethanoic Anhydride


· 1 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid


· 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water (100 cm of each)


· 100cm beaker


· 50cm beaker


· Gloves


· Goggles


· Glass rod


· Dropper


· Side arm flask


· Pump


· Buckner Funnel


· Filter paper


· Electronic scale


· Dry Dish


· Measuring Cylinder


· Oven


Method 1 � plan


1. First we put on the safety gear consisting of Gloves and Goggles


. We then gather and wash all apparatus and dry them for use


. Then place a clean 100cm beaker on to the electronic scale and press the T button on the scale to bring the total back to Zero. We then add in the -hydroxy benzoic acid in to the beaker until the count reaches 5 grams


4. Start storing the chemicals with a glass rod


5. While storing add 1 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid


6. Measure 150cm of distilled water using a measuring cylinder in to a 50cm beaker


7. Add the chemicals in to the beaker containing the distilled water


8. Place filter paper in to the top of the Buckner funnel


. Place the Buckner funnel into the top of the side arm flask and connect the pump to the side arm


10. Pour the contents of the 50 cm beaker in to the top of the Buckner funnel


11. Turn on the pump


1. After the vacuum filtration is complete remove the filter paper from the Buckner funnel and pour the contents in to a 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water (100cm of each) to recrystalise the solid


1. Vacuum filtrate the mixture again to remove any moisture


14. Place the solid on to a dry dish and place in to an oven at a temperature under 105°C


Method � Apparatus


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid


· 10 cm of Ethanoic Anhydride


· 1 drops of 85% phosphoric acid


· 50/50 by volume mixture of Ethanoic acid and water


· Distilled water


· 100cm beaker


· 50cm beakers


· Goggles


· Gloves


· Dropper


· Buckner funnel


· Side Arm Flask


· Pump


· Glass rod


· Electronic scale


· Bunsen burner


· Tri-pod stand


· Filter paper


· Measuring cylinder


Method � Plan


1. First of all we put on the protective clothing this consists of goggles and gloves these are used to prevent the chemicals coming in contact with skin or eyes


. Gather and wash all apparatus and dry for use


. Add the following chemicals into a 100 cm quick fit pear shape flask


· 5 grams of -hydroxy benzoic acid which we measure using a electronic scale


· 10 cm of Ethanoic Anhydride which we measure using a measuring cylinder


4. Start to swirl the mixture using a glass rod


5. While swirling the mixture add 1 drops of 85% phosphoric acid this is measured using a Dropper


6. Place 50 cm beaker half full of water on to a tri-pod stand and place a Bunsen burner under it and light it.


7. This is to be used as the steam bath


8. Place the mixture in the reflux apparatus


. Place the reflux apparatus over the 50cm beaker


10. Allow the mixture to reflux for 5 minutes over the steam bath


11. When the reaction has ended pour the mixture in to a 50cm beaker with 100cm





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Effective Practices in Increased Student Performances

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Description of Program


The availability of general education and special education preschool programs is the key to success for students now and later when they enter school age programs. My dual role as a special education administrator and a general education advisory board member enables me to facilitate parents and professionals in this community, and ultimately results in students achieving higher performances on all levels of education in School District 6.


As an administrator of the Committee on Preschool Special Education I ensure that children receive appropriate preschool services as mandated by their Individualized Education Programs. It is my duty to guide parents during the referral and evaluation process and ensure them of their due process rights. I then chair the committee of evaluators, special educators, general educators, preschool coordinators, and clinicians, to develop an appropriate Individual Education program for each preschooler in need. I present options according to State Education Department guidelines, and present the continuum of services in terms that parents can understand. I make sure parents and educators are comfortable with the final recommendation of the committee. I then contract the appropriate service providers, utilizing agencies, schools, and independent providers and deliver them in the least restrictive environment for each individual preschool student.


As a member of the Universal Preschool Advisory Board in District 6 I help to ensure that preschool programs are available to all four year olds in this district. I was one of the original members of the Advisory Board when we first implemented “UPK” classes in New York City. I helped select the first preschool sites in the district and continue to evaluate prospective sites and re-evaluate our current program. We now have classes in six public schools and ten private schools, and accommodate approximately eight hundred four year olds in half-day programs throughout the district. I consult with the UPK general education teachers to help identify and accommodate children with special needs in their classrooms.


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I am familiar with the broad spectrum of services available for preschool students in both the public and private domains, in special education and general education. Subsequently, children receive appropriate services in a timely fashion, according to State Education mandates, and in the least restrictive environment. Parents are comfortable with recommendations and services. Special education teachers and service providers have workable programs that can easily be implemented. General education teachers have the support they need to accommodate special education students in their preschool classrooms. I help this community educate young children early and successfully. The carry over we sees into school age programs is impressive.


Description of Qualitative Exemplary Practices


I was one of the first Preschool Special Education Administrators hired by New York City when the Committee on Preschool Special Education started in 18. In those early days, services were only provided to four year olds, and in self-contained classrooms, and only in private special education preschools. Through the years the school district’s jurisdiction expanded to accommodate three and four year olds, not just five to twenty one year olds as in the past. And instead of placing children in segregated classrooms, in privately contracted schools, we allowed for related services, such as Speech/Language, Occupational, and Physical Therapies, and Counseling, to be provided in the regular preschool settings or even in the home. The continuum of services now also includes the Special Education Itinerant Teacher program that provides support in the regular classroom setting, with consultation for the regular classroom teacher, and direct assistance for the student within the class, to maintain that student in that general education class. Another addition to the continuum was the Special Class in the Integrated Setting, which allows for preschool students with disabilities to benefit from a special education teacher and staff, together with their non-handicapped peers, in the same structured classroom. This continuum of services reflects the consideration of the State Education Department mandate that services be delivered in the least restrictive environment. But it is how the CPSE Administrator carries out these mandates that ultimately decides whether children are actually receiving appropriate services in the least restrictive environment.


It is my obligation to inform parents and teachers, and administrators and directors of programs, and clinicians and service providers, of what options are available, according to this continuum of services, and to deliver them in the least restrictive environment. I was instrumental in initially working with the District Office in implementing the first integrated class on the preschool level in this district, which is at P.S. 1. And when parents of the children in preschool integrated classes and SEIT programs started to demand the same type of services when their children entered kindergarten, I helped the district office and CSE review teams in recommending and implementing integrated classes and consultant teacher programs on the school age level. So, we see that what started with preschool services transitioned into the elementary school age level programs. Empowered parents on the preschool level insist on similar services and patterns for success on the school age level.


When CPSE first started we had to classify preschool children with the same specific classifications used on the school age level. It was difficult to categorize, or label children, especially at such a young age. Now, we use one generic term, “preschool student with a disability,” which is a less restrictive means of classifying educationally handicapped youngsters. I remember one particular case of a student with Down’s syndrome. I directed the parent to look at different special education sites in order to place his son in an appropriate class. After looking at one particular site, the father called me and said, “I know my son is mentally retarded, but does he have to be in a class with stupid children?” I learned from this parent’s words. His words opened my mind, and opened my heart. I learned that even children with severe disabilities are entitled to be schooled with non-handicapped peers, given the right support services. Eventually that child was mainstreamed into an integrated class setting. When he transitioned from the CPSE to the school age CSE, that father was well aware of his rights, knew what the continuum of services was, and insisted that his son receive appropriate services in the least restrictive environment just as he had on the preschool level.


It is my goal to inform other administrators and the general public of what services are available for preschool students, and to identify and service children as early as possible. I have done this by personally training new CPSE Administrators in New York City over the past ten years. I sat on the committee that developed the current Standard Operating Procedures Manual for New York City Board of Education. I consult on a daily basis with other administrators, and directors of both special education and general education preschool programs. I assist in the smooth transition of preschool students with disabilities into the school age programs by working with the CSE teams that evaluate and place children for kindergarten. I actively participate on the UPK Advisory board our community. I have run workshops at local preschools to inform parents and teachers about preschool services available in our community. I feel it is my duty in my roles as both special education administrator and general education UPK Advisory Board member to empower parents and professionals, and continually meet the needs of preschool students. Ultimately this empowerment is reflected in parents and professionals in the entire community, preschool and school age.


Description of Outcomes


When I first taught in NYC school over twenty years ago, I taught a self contained class of educationally handicapped kindergarten, first and second grade students. Most had never received preschool services of any kind, and most had been identified as needing special education services only after failing in the regular class placement, after they had started elementary school.


My goal as CPSE Administrator and as the Universal Preschool Advisory Board member is to make sure children are receiving appropriate preschool services, so that they will succeed in school early. Children who have problems educationally must be identified before they fail on the school age level. As an administrator in District 6, working with CPSE and UPK I can ensure for the early identification and delivery of services on the preschool level. Early identification will lead to greater success and less restrictive services on the school age level. Many students who receive preschool services are decertified before they even enter kindergarten. Therefore we see greater student performance for both general education and special education students in the upper grades.


Educational services can be viewed in the shape of a pyramid. The preschool services - general education in the form of the UPK classrooms and special education preschool services � form the base of the pyramid. This component is the foundation for the upper grades, or the higher levels on the pyramid. Educational services, be it special education or general education, should be broad based and extensive. If we give broad based, enriched services and supports on the preschool level, the student will need fewer and less restrictive special education support services on the elementary level. Parents are more informed now regarding what their children need on the preschool level. They transition their children into the elementary school programs with the same expectations they had when their children received preschool services. Quality preschool programs through CPSE services and UPK programs will result in better-prepared students overall. If student outcomes are higher on the preschool level, they will subsequently be higher on the school age level.


As an active Universal Prekindergarten Advisory Board member and an Administrator for the Committee on Preschool Special Education in District 6 I do all I can to ensure quality services on the preschool level, which ultimately results in greater student performance on all levels of education.





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9/22/2011

In Vitro Fertility

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In vitro fertilization is a technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mothers body. The process begins with the woman taking fertility drugs to increase the number of eggs that are released at ovulation. In IVF, a female egg is fertilized with a sperm solution and returned to the uterus through the cervix. Several, or eggs, are removed from the mothers body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes and then the sperm from the father are then added. If fertilization occurs, a fertilized ovum, is either transferred to the mothers or a surrogate mothers body for normal development in the uterus. Eggs can also now be frozen and fertilized later.


This technique was first developed by Drs. Patrick C. Steptoe and Robert G. Edwards of Great Britain. This was where the first test-tube baby was born under their care in 178. the technique was invented for use in cases of infertility caused by the damage of the womans fallopian tubes or the mans low sperm count. It is also now used to enable prospective parents with other reproductive problems to bear a child. In embryo donation, frozen embryos that are not needed by the mother are donated for implantation to a woman or couple who are infertile but wish to have, and are capable of bearing, children.


A couple is considered infertile if the woman does not conceive a child after one year of unprotected, well-timed intercourse or she has been unable to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. Women under the age of 5 are usually advised to try for 1 months before consulting a physician. Various infertility treatments are normally recommended after six months of trying to conceive. Infertility is not always a woman problem. It is a medical problem of the male or female reproductive system. In 40% of cases, the cause is traced to the woman, another 40% of cases are traced to the man. The rest of the cases are caused by unknown factors.


Statistics show that 6.1 million women 15-44 suffer from impared ability to have children. The number of married couples who suffer from this imparity are .1 million.Most of these women or couples turn to infertility treatments for results. Nine point three million of them have used infertility services. The number of women that are currently using some type of infertility treatments are . million.


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IVF can be a good option if the womans fallopian tubes are blocked or if she has endometriosis. IVF is also a good choice when the male partner has a low sperm count. IVF can also be used when the cause of infertility is unknown. An Assisted Reproductive Technology, IVF is a good option for many couples.


Although most of the women who undergo this procedure are satisfied with the results, there are some that may not be so succesful. Clinical pregnancies refers to women whose positive pregnancy tests were followed by identification of a fetus on ultrasound at about seven weeks gestation. Some miscarriages can be expected at that point. Since you presumably want to know what your chances are of having a baby from IVF, live birth data will give you a better picture than clinical pregnancy rates. An ongoing pregnancy is different from a clinical pregnancy. It is one which has reached the second trimester and is therefore quite likely to result in a live birth. According to IVF succes rates, 45% of the women who sustain this procedure give birth to a child. Women under 40 are more likely to have a succesful pregnancy that a woman who is over 40.


Concisely, it is obvious that In Vitro fertilization is a possible resolution to infertility problems in the United States. Thousands of women have obtained positive results due to the outcome of this technique/ surgery. This procedure will hopefully improve so that all women can enjoy parenthood.





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9/20/2011

Global Warming

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Global Warming


Global warming is an important issue for humans to consider and science to figure out. Personally I don’t care very much about global warming and have never been active in green movements. The evidence presented in this class is very informative and useful when taking into account the numerous known and unknown causes and cures for global warming. However, my attitude towards global warming is unchanged.


According to the Common Attitudes Toward Global Warming handout I think that my attitude can be described as a mix between several of the listed attitudes. The strongest attitude I have is the Precautionary Principal. It is clear to most of the scientific community that the average temperature of the earth’s surface is increasing. I have faith in science; therefore I believe that steps should be taken to figure out what is going on. I don’t mean taking an alarmist position and believing that drastic actions should be taken now. There is too little evidence showing that the world will be lost because of global warming. I don’t feel a responsibility toward future generations. I think that mankind should go on for a long time enjoying nature as I have all my life. But to blame myself or try to hold others accountable to future generations would be a waste of time for me. I believe that a technological fix will be necessary and has already been employed to help reduce or reverse global warming. Searching for cleaner burning fuels, filters and scrubbers used in power plants, and refrigerant systems using CFC free refrigerants are just three examples of how technology has helped and will continue to help our atmosphere and environment.


The amounts of question and uncertainties covered in this class have been most influential in reinforcing my attitudes and beliefs about global warming. There are too many unknowns for me to get committed and really take an activist position on global warming. The missing CO problem is an issue that helped me determine there are too many unknowns to really care enough to try to make a difference.


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The recent rise in global average temperatures is interesting at best for me. I am not too concerned by the possible impacts like a rise in sea level or adverse effects to human health; since I am years old it is unlikely to effect me during my lifetime. I’m more concerned that global cooling will occur due to a massive volcanic eruption. Take the world’s largest caldera which makes up Yellowstone National Park. If it erupts again it could kick off another ice age or even destroy the earth forever. Or maybe there will be major volcanic eruptions, like Mt. Pinatubo in 11, more frequently that will help balance the earth’s heat budget by, “…inject(ing) sub microscopic particles in(to) the stratosphere...” which can “…act to cool the earth’s surface by scattering and absorbing solar radiation.” According to the discovery channel the frequency of volcanic eruptions is increasing. This is just another reason I don’t get all worked up about the global warming issue.


Climate models are important to us, clearly they are not perfectly accurate but we need to keep trying. The evidence suggests that computer models are getting better as computers operate faster and as feedbacks are better understood. I think that in the future predictions will get better but they will still be predictions which can have unpredicted outcomes. I think that impact studies are good to an extent. They are still predictions and it is important that people who use them to make decisions regarding the affects of climate change on humans and ecosystems understand that impact studies are not necessarily fact. Any decisions to act, not to act, spend or not to spend based on climate models and impact studies should be done very carefully.


I think the U.S. government should force corporations that are known to be responsible for releasing greenhouse gas emissions to reduce them. However, I think it will be difficult to do without any reliable data to prove that the greenhouse effect is the cause of global warming. Corporations will inevitably resist the proposed costs necessary to reduce emissions which may lead to costly legal battles. Without rock solid proof it will be nearly impossible to change the status quo. This is another reason why continued research with climate models must continue. When a reliable enough model is available then and only then can corporations be forced to act. The auto industry is making steps to produce cars with reduced emissions and that use alternative fuels. Unfortunately most individual consumers seem to want the big gas guzzling SUV’s. But research is being done that may lay the groundwork for laws that require new vehicles to have much lower greenhouse emissions.


I am not willing to do a single thing to help reduce greenhouse gasses. I race my car and I hate the fact that I have to get emission testing done to my vehicle every couple of years. Race cars that are not street legal are exempt from many of the regulations regarding emissions. However, my street car is also my race car at track events on weekends. There are ways to get around the emission and catalytic converter issue, which I do and have done for the past 1 years. I remove the catalytic converter and emissions equipment which increases horsepower and torque; which every race car driver wants. But when I get the notice in the mail to get the car emission tested I put the stock emissions equipment back on. It is a cost that I have learned to accept but I still don’t like it. When my personal liberties are limited by the government I usually do not appreciate it, especially regarding my love for the internal combustion engine and my drive to make it faster, no matter how much fuel I burn. But there is another prong to my beliefs about global warming and greenhouse emissions. For the past 5 years I’ve spent six months out of the year on a fishing boat in the NE Atlantic. I don’t want to see fish populations decrease or move somewhere else because the oceans rising temperature. But in the last 5 years I have fished I have seen the fish populations increase. I believe that the fishing regulations are responsible for that. I feel that I don’t want bad things to happen to wildlife because of global warming. On the other hand I may be contributing to global warming with my blatant disregard for governmental regulations regarding emissions testing; very strange. But the truth is that I’m not convinced that the earth’s surface will continue to warm indefinitely, if we as humans don’t change our ways.


I will be a follower and an individual on the issue of global warming. I don’t ridicule any body seriously for their opinions or stance regarding the environment. I just hope that decisions that will cost people money are made wisely.





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